The settlement of Mytischi has been known since 1460 as “Yauzsky Mytischi”, since the 19th century as “Bolshiye Mytischi” (Большие Мытищи). The history of settlement is closely linked with the lively ancient trade route of Russia, which took place on the rivers Moscow and Klyazma.Mytischi was an important place on the trade ship route. Through this site commercial ships had been hauled across on wheels, rollers, or skids from the Yauza River to the Klyazma River. Merchants had to pay a duty for this. The settlement got its name thanks to the duty, which had been known as myt (мыт).Town status was granted in 1925.
The town’s history has lasted for many centuries and is inseparably associated with the destiny of Russia. In 1779 Empress Catherine II signed a decree ordering general-lieutenant V.F. Bauer to start works for construction of a water conduit for Moscow from springs in Mytischi. It was the first water supply constructed in Russia to provide the Kremlin with pure water.The first line of the water conduit is a unique engineering structure, it was a gravity-flowing conduit using the natural decline of the area in its design. The water, being collected from brickwork pools in Mytischi by an adit, reached Sukharevsky and Samotechny squares in Moscow using this adit.Construction of the water conduit continued for 25 years. The first fountains of Moscow were arranged for distribution of the water. The water conduit was opened in a solemn ceremony on October 28, 1804 becoming a peculiar kind of a monument to Catherine II.